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The European Commission has fined Google a record $5 billion (€4.34 billion) for breaching EU antitrust rules, a decision the internet search giant immediately said it would appeal.

The fine stems from Google practices that the commission said were used “to cement its dominant position in general internet search,” according to a commission statement. The statement said Google required handset manufacturers to pre-install the Google Search app and its Chrome browser, limiting rival search engines, and also “made payments to certain large manufacturers and mobile network operators on condition that they exclusively pre-installed the Google Search app on their devices.”

The statement added that Google “prevented manufacturers wishing to pre-install Google apps from selling even a single smart mobile device running on alternative versions of Android.”

Google denied engaging in anti-competitive practices. “Android has created more choice for everyone, not less,” said Google spokesman Al Verney. “A vibrant ecosystem, rapid innovation and lower prices are classic hallmarks of robust competition. We will appeal the commission’s decision.”

The commission accused Google of plotting for years to maintain its stranglehold on the internet-search market. “Google obtains the vast majority of its revenues via its flagship product, the Google search engine,” Wednesday’s statement said. “The company understood early on that the shift from desktop PCs to mobile internet, which started in the mid-2000s, would be a fundamental change for Google Search. So, Google developed a strategy to anticipate the effects of this shift, and to make sure that users would continue to use Google Search also on their mobile devices.”

About 80% of smart mobile devices in Europe and worldwide run on Android, whose original developer Google bought in 2005, the commission said. Google must now bring its practices “effectively to an end within 90 days or face penalty payments of up to 5% of the average daily worldwide turnover of Alphabet, Google’s parent company.”

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